Monday, January 20, 2020
There are several assumptions with which I will begin prior to discussing my confession. The first assumption is that Jesus, who was crucified, is Lord and that God has raised him from the dead. A second assumption is that apart from the first assumption, any and all other aspects of my confession could be flawed or wrong. My beliefs about the nature of Scripture, God, Creation, Humanity and Sin, Jesus Christ, Salvation, Holy Spirit, and the Church, though related to the centrality of the gospel, the gospel in itself is not contingent upon many these things. Therefore, though my confession in relation to the aforementioned beliefs could change over time and with experience, the central belief of the gospel of Jesus Christ, however, will never change. In relation to the centrality of the gospel, I also believe that the God who raised Jesus from the dead is the creator of all things, and is inherently good, that God is opposed to evil in the world. I believe that God will eventu ally bring a final judgment and healing to all things, which will restore the universe and the evil within it. While I believe all of these things, provided by the evidence of scripture, I do not believe I will ever know all things of God and theology in this life and possibly should not be concerned with the knowledge of all things of God and those things related to God. The writers of the biblical text were not concerned with knowing all things of God, but instead, having relationship with God and trusting in that relationship. It is with these assumptions that I begin my confession. This confession seeks to: (1) Convey a theology of Scripture, God, Creation, Humanity and Sin, Jesus Christ, Salvation, Holy Spirit, the Church and Ministry; and (2)... ...s the fellowship of the body of Jesus Christ. It exists wherever two or three are together in the name of Jesus Christ to worship and serve. The church is holy in that the church is set apart to God by the Holy Spirit. The church serves as the dwelling place of God on earth and has a unique purpose to glorify God among all people. It is also a community of discipleship and repentance. The church is universal because as Roger E. Olson states, Ã¢â¬Å"it exists across barriers of language, ethnicity, culture and nationality.Ã¢â¬ (Olson, 304) The universal church extends from Pentecost, until the return of Christ and throughout eternity. The church is apostolic in that it is a continuation of the faith of the apostles of Jesus Christ who received the Holy Spirit on the Day of Pentecost. Wherever the apostles proclaim the gospel, the church is present. (Olson, 305)
Sunday, January 12, 2020
CONTENT S. NO| TOPIC| 1| Introduction about the case| 2| Analyse the problem with the case using OB theories and concepts. | 3| How should Barton make her case for executive education? | 4| Reflection upon our experience of working in a group. | 5| Conclusion| 6| Referencing| ABSTRACT Karen Barton, Zendal Pharmaceuticals (senior vice president of HR) ,was annoyed when COO Palmer scorched her executive education budget by 75%.The first thought that came to Barton mind that it was a mistake, but it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t a fault as Palmer patiently told Barton, sales were down by 26% and there was $300 million debts Zendal took on when it acquired Premier Pharmaceuticals, as a result BartonÃ¢â¬â¢s budget wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the only one being cut. Palmer added that it wasn't clear what would be the return on investment of her proposed program or any of her current ones for that event. Barton's analysis had been extremely short on Quantitative benefits.Barton complained to a friend Carlo Freitas, he ad of the medical devices division about this, but Freitas disagreed: Ã¢â¬Å"If you want dollars, you have to show how you fit in with management's plans. You must be deliberate to fight for the resources with rest of usÃ¢â¬ . Barton bristled: Ã¢â¬Å"Don't you see that my department is connected to all the others? Every division benefits from the HR budget. Ã¢â¬ But she noticed that Freitas was correct. She needed to make the case that duplify her budget was a clever act even in tenacious times. Q1. Analyse the problem with the case using OB theories and concepts.Ans. Analysing the case we find the following concepts: 1. Conflict concept: Ã¢â¬Å"It is a disagreement between two people or group over some major issuesÃ¢â¬ . In the case there is a disagreement between Palmer and Barton regarding the importance of executive education due to which BartonÃ¢â¬â¢s executive education budget was cut by more than 75%. 2. Understanding concept: Ã¢â¬Å"It relates to showing/exchanging of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s thought with that of othersÃ¢â¬ . Here Barton takes helps of her friend Frietas in order to take some decision regarding the executive education.Now regarding this decision Freitas tells her that she should provide justification for as how will executive education somewhere lead to profit of the company. 3. Communication concept: Ã¢â¬Å"Communication is process by which information is transmitted between individuals and/or organization so that an understanding of response resultsÃ¢â¬ . Barton knew about the interests of the executive towards a particular program communication with them and also encouraged the executives for enrolling in the respective program they liked. 4.Organization development concept: Ã¢â¬Å"It is a long term strategic which focuses on the whole culture of the organization in order to bring about planned changesÃ¢â¬ In this case Barton took a step ahead for the executivesÃ¢â¬â¢ education for executives in the company. Barton as the mana ger of HR department was wondering as how executives can be provided with the training (organizational department). For this she took two steps: (a) Initiatives for two types of employees: * New Hires Ã¢â¬â who had to be bought up in a quick and speed way. * First level supervisors Ã¢â¬â these are high potential performers.An average enrolment was between 25 and 30 employees. (b) Low key approach : BartonÃ¢â¬â¢s team adopted an initiative to collect information on various programs at different B schools. Barton has encouraged executives to speak to the attendees first and look over the course materials those people had brought back. According to her this was a good way to determine whether the executives need fits with the programs theme. 5. Motivation concept: it is one of the most important concepts that best fits in the matter. Motivation Motive Motivating Engagement in work behaviourActivating needs and providing needs satisfaction on environment Needs in individuals In this case all the executives under Barton were being motivated by her for enrolling in the best suited programs and also she asked them to enrol in the programs which discouraged they felt were poor or below average. THEORIES: 1. VroomÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of expectancy: Ã¢â¬Å"Theory deals with the variables of motivation and their interrelationÃ¢â¬ . Employee Effort Performance Reward According to the block line diagram of VTOE we can correlate the case as: (a) Employee : executives b) Effort : that are made by Barton (c) Performance: all the performance criteria can be given to Barton and her team members. (d) Reward: enrolment of executives as managers and some increment of position. 2. Leadership theory: Ã¢â¬Å"it is the process of influencing others towards the accomplishment of goals. It is the ability of a manager to induce subordinates to work with confidence and zealÃ¢â¬ Behavioural theory of leadership: Ã¢â¬Å"this is related to the behaviour of the leader that it is some where related to what the leader does instead of hi traitsÃ¢â¬ .According to the above theories of leadership we can relate to our case study as follows: Barton instead of acting as a manager acted as a leader thinking of the welfare of various executives who could be projected by executive thinking. Q2. How should Barton make her case for executive education? Ans. Barton should have focused on creating a quantitative ROI that the other executives buy into or should have revised her training program so that it does have measurable outcomes for a quantitative ROI.In order to make her case for executive education to palmer she should have explained or shown the turnover and ROI calculation as shown below.. Turnover ROI calculation: Total number of employees = 5,000 Turnover rate per year = 5% Turnover cost per employee = $20. 000 (termination,staffing,training etc) 5,000*. 05*20,000 = 5,000,000 Therefore, estimated cost of turnover per year = $ 5,000,000 Number of executive = 50 5,0 00,000/50 = 100,000 i. e estimated cost of turnover per executive = $ 100,000. Total number of employees = 5,000Reduced Turnover rate per year = 4% Turnover cost per employee = $20. 000 . 5,000*. 04*20,000 = 4,000,000 Therefore, estimated cost of reduced turnover per year = $ 4,000,000 Number of executive = 50 4,000,000/50 = 80,000 i. e estimated cost of reduced turnover per executive = $ 80,000. Saving per executive = $ 20,000 (100,000 Ã¢â¬â 80,000) Cost of training per executive = $ 12,000 Financial benefit per executive = $ 8,000 ROI = 20000/12000*100 = 167% Return for each dollar invested. Productivity ROI calculation : Number of sales specialists= 250Annual sales contribution each specialist = $ 50,000 Increase in productivity = 6% 250*50,000*. 06 = 750,000 Number of executives = 50 750,000/50 = 15,000 Estimated benefit of increased productivity per executive = $15,000 Sales increase per executive = $ 15,000 Cost of training per executive = $ 12,000 Financial Benefit per exe cutive = $ 3,000 ROI = 15,000/12,000*100 = 125 % Return for each dollar invested Therefore total ROI according to her revised executive program is as follows .. Turnover: Savings per executive = $ 20,000 Cost of training per executive = $12,000Financial bebefit per executive = $ 8,000 ROI = 167% Productivity: Added impact on contribution per executive = $ 15,000 Cost of training per executive = $ 12,000 Financial benefit per executive = $ 3,000 ROI = 125% ROI = 35,000/12,000*100=292% Return for each dollar invested Therefore by showing this calculation Barton should have explained how her program can provide financial benefit per executive with less cost of training per executive and with greater ROI for each dollar invested.. Reflection upon our experience of working in a group. Ans.For us working in a group was very beneficial as it gave us the chance to work together with new charm and refreshing ideas. Although in the beginning it was very challenging for all of us but despite o f that we worked together which at last helped us in increasing our view points towards the case study and resulted in a Better research work with thoughtful solutions for the case. Each member in our group was very motivative and gave his or her 100 percent in completing our work. Like all typical groups, in our group also there were good and bad events and moments. i. sometimes we had conflict among us over different views , but Whatever the scenario was, we learned a lot from each other and at last were very comfortable working with each other. CONCLUSION Leadership has been a major topic in management and business literature over the last few years. The rapid changes in business, technology, political and social factors has required the development of effective leadership skills. As a result leadership development programs have become an increasing priority for business and government organizations. Therefore Barton should have done a more thorough evaluation in order to Identif y the strengths and weakness of her executive development programs, * Identify the trainees which benefited the most from her program * She should have determined the costs of the program and its financial benefits to the organisation * Moreover she should have compared the costs and benefits of her training versus non training investments , the costs and benefits of different training programs to choose the best program out of it and then should have presented her case to Dave Palmer mentioning all the benefits of her executive development rogram and should have tried to convince palmer not to cut that major chunk from her program as it would be a fruitful investment for the organisation in the long run and would surely help its organisation perform well in the future. REFERENCING Margie Parikh, Rajen Gupta. (2011). exploring communication as a behaviourial process. In: Shalini negi,Sneha kumariÃ Organisational Behaviour. new delhi: tata mcgraw-hill education private limited. 285 .Margie Parikh,Rajen Gupta. (2011). managing conflict,stress and negotiation. In: Shalini negi,Sneha kumariÃ Organisational Behaviour. new delhi: tata mcgraw-hill education private limited. 307. Margie Parikh, Rajen Gupta. (2011). understanding decision making as a process . In: Shalini negi, Sneha kumariÃ Organisational Behaviour. new delhi: tata mcgraw-hill education private limited. 332. Margie Parikh,Rajen Gupta. (2011). understanding motivation.In: Shalini negi,Sneha kumariÃ Organisational Behaviour. new delhi: tata mcgraw-hill education private limited. 139. Margie Parikh,Rajen Gupta. (2011). understanding motivation. In: Shalini negi,Sneha kumariÃ Organisational Behaviour. new delhi: tata mcgraw-hill education private limited. 141. Margie Parikh,Rajen Gupta. (2011). understanding leaders. In: Shalini negi,Sneha kumariÃ Organisational Behaviour. new delhi: tata mcgraw-hill education private limited. 519-523.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
The DREAM Act Since early in the 17th century, immigrants from different places on over the world have come to America to seek for freedom and opportunities. They have contributed in a large portion of the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ economy as well as culture. As a result, the impacts on American communities have turned into arguable issues, and one of them comes from educational field, the DREAM Act. In a simple way, DREAM Act (Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors) is a program that offers permanent legal status to illegal immigrants up to age 35 who arrived in the United States before age 16, resided in the U.S. for at least five years, graduated from high school and completed two years of college or honorable military service. Standing on both sides to consider the its influences, the questions of either The DREAM Act has a positive or negative effect on AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s college and whether or not it should be passed are still vague between controversial opinions. Obviously, the DREAM Act is a life buoy for illegal immigrants that helps them touch their dream of learning in the best education system. The Act supports immigrants with a low in-state tuition, which is affordable with the most of them. As a result, the opportunities to attend to college are wide-opened than ever, and they guarantee immigrants a bright future. By the side, they will have a better chance to receive the U.S. citizenship and become an effective member in the society. The Act has become an amnestyShow MoreRelatedThe Dream Act Of The United States891 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesImmigrants DREAM Act. Opposing Viewpoints Online Collection. Detroit: Gale, 2016. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 5 Apr. 2016. The Dream Act is on foreign immigrants that want to have the opportunity to come to America for a better education. Discussing the Dream ActÃ¢â¬â¢s history background and how it is affecting people in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. According to Ã¢â¬Å"Dream ActÃ¢â¬ states, Ã¢â¬Å"In the following years, however, a rising number of states passed their own programs that reflected goals of DREAM, particularlyRead MoreThe Dream Act Of The United States1396 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn a flat world, the United States cannot afford not to help undocumented students. This is especially true in Yakima, Washington. In 2010, Washington alone had roughly 230,000 illegal residents. That number is important because a lot of the businesses in this area are agricultural based and not many jobs would require you to pursue higher education. The Dream Act would allow certain undocumented residents who meet the requirements to pursue a higher education or enter the military. Although I amRead MoreThe Unite d States : The Dream Act Was Introduced By Senators Dick Durbin And Orrin Hatch900 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesImmigration has been a part of the United States history since its birth. America is a country that was found and built by immigrants. In the beginning everybody was an immigrant. There were people from all over the globe coming to America with the hope for a better lifeÃ¢â¬âwhich still holds true today. There are countless reasons that people are wanting to come to America today. Some immigrants are fleeing radical governments, while others are escaping countries that are torn with civil war. Read MoreAmerica, The Land of Broken Dreams: The Controversial DREAM Act1063 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesothers to fight for their dreams and aspirations. The immigration reform is one of those dreams that undocumented Americans are fighting for today. One particular dream within the immigration reform movement is the Development, Relief and Education of Alien Minors Act, in other words, the DREAM Act. This is the Act that undocumented students across the United States dream of turning into a reality, but so far that dream is nothing but a blur. The passage of the DREAM Act will help strengthen the USRead MoreIllegal Immigration Is A Controversial Issue For Many Years1429 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAmerican Dream Illegal immigration it is a controversial issue for many years. Immigrants do not have the same benefits as Americans citizens. According to the article Illegal Immigration by Kathleen Brown states Ã¢â¬Å"In the past decade, the number of illegal immigrants has double, to 2.1 million, equivalent to the population of ArkansasÃ¢â¬ (Brown). In fact, illegal immigrants immigrate to America, but their main intention is to get better opportunities in life. The American dream is all over the worldRead MoreDREAM Act Research Paper1477 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages DREAM Act There is always that one student that has a strong work ethic and when things get exacerbated they keep working and just do not quit. These students are students who are eager to learn who want succeed, but when it comes to the end of their high school career, what happens? There are approximately 65,000 young adults that are undocumented and graduate each year from high school ( Ã¢â¬Å"The DREAM Act Immigration Access to Higher Education.Ã¢â¬ ). These students want to achieve something prominentRead MoreDream Act or Nightmare Act?1073 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors Act, or DREAM Act of 2011, proposes to allow children of undocumented immigrants that were brought to the United States before their fifteenth birthday who have lived in America for at least five years straight to apply for permanent residency once they graduate from high school or achieve a GED. Conditionally, these children must be admitted into a college and complete a two-year degree or serve two years in the military. They must also beRead MoreEssay on The Development Relief and Education for Alien Minors Act1384 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagestheir education after completing the public education system. The Development Relief and Education for Alien Minors Act (DREAM Act) was created by a proposal to cease penalizing children of illegal immigrants who were brought over to the United States by their parents at an early age. The DREAM Act includes many requirements that are necessary to be considered an applicant. The DREAM Act must be implemented in order to provide hard-working individuals greater opportunities, due to the fact that undocumentedRead MoreEssay on The DREAM Act: A Better Life1127 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesrightly deserve. They spend their entire lives in the United States and are considered illegal immigrants. They are given no choice, but to live their life as an undocumented immigrant. That is what the DREAM Act is trying to solve. The DREAM Act, or Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors is a proposal that would provide permanent residency to undocumented immigrants who meet certain eligibility requirements (The DREAM Act). If the DREAM Act is approved, then the education will be improvedRead MoreIllegal Immigrants : Illegal Immigration1155 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthis true? Could it possibly be that they do all of this to hurt the United States? Or could it be that they truly come here for the American Dream? On one side of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s perspectives illegal immigrants come here to help provide for their family and donÃ¢â¬â¢t take to consideration to hurt the United States in anyway. While on the other hand, others believe differently by saying that illegal immigrants do come to the United States to hurt the economy and bring their drugs as well as other harmful actions
Friday, December 27, 2019
presentment and have been indicted by a Grand Jury. This allows for people to Ã¢â¬Å"plead the 5thÃ¢â¬ in court. The text of the Sixth Amendment states that in all and any criminal prosecutions, the accused will be given the right to a public and speedy trial, by an impartial jury of the district and state where the crime took place. The Seventh Amendment gives an individual a right to have a trial by jury instead of judge to some civil cases. The Supreme Court ruled in Justices v. Murray, 76 U.S. 9 Wall. 274 274 (1869), that the Seventh Amendment is not only limited in being applied to civil lawsuits that are tried before juries found in United States courts, but is also applicable in cases that are tried before a jury when at a state court. TheÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬Å"I like to tell young people when you have an interaction with a police officer that does not know you, you talk to them like you have some sense. If you try to oppose them, you create an environment th at is hostileÃ¢â¬ ¦ But you do have rights. If they ever ask you if they can search you, your answer is no. Because by saying yes you are giving them consent to a search,Ã¢â¬ says Juvenile Court Counselor Karl Johnson (Karl). In addition, you have particular rights when walking on the sidewalk compared to driving or even being a passenger in a vehicle. Ã¢â¬Å"Police can ask people on the street any question they want. But unless the person is driving or biking, under investigation for a crime or suspected of committing another offense, such as being drunk in public, that person is not required to show ID, or answer the questions.Ã¢â¬ (CBC). Police officers can only stop and detain you if they have probable cause that you are about to, or have committed a crime. The suspicion must be based on specific and articulable facts and not merely upon an officer s hunch. Ã¢â¬Å"[I]n justifying the particular intrusion the police officer must be able to point to specific and articulable facts which, taken together with rational inferences from those facts, reasonably warrant the intrusion. (Wiki). If theShow MoreRelatedGovernment Enforcement, Crime And The American Population Essay1139 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesoften creating controversy between the public and the police. Under democratically-inspired legal restraints, notably the Bill of Rights, the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Eighth, and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution ensure the personal rights and freedoms of American citizens against certain police-related matters. The Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution addresses the concept of unreasonable search and seizure, based on archives of the Constitution published by the WhiteRead MoreEssay on Law Enforcement and the Rights of the Accused1440 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEnforcement and the Rights of the Accused Ã¢â¬Æ' Law Enforcement and the Rights of the Accused In this paper, I will discuss Amendments VI, V, VI and VIII which give rights to the accused. I will also examine how these rights affect law enforcement procedures. I will then give details on which law enforcement agencies each amendment affects and how. Amendment VI gives the people the right against unreasonable search and seizure. It also states that a warrant has to be signed by a judge andRead MoreEssay On The Death Penalty1641 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdiscussed by University professor Joseph Blocher in Ã¢â¬Å"The Death Penalty and the Fifth Amendment. Blocher claims that the fifth amendment is a weak argument for the death penalty. He points out how in the founding fathers era, the fifth amendment may have been acceptable, but it is no longer permissible. The eighth amendment also comes into question of the constitutionality of the death penalty. The article Eighth Amendment -- Death Penalty -- Preliminary Injunctions -- Glossip V. Gross, discussesRead MoreThe Bill of Rights: The Most Important Documents in American History1579 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRights into the Constitution, Congress did not approve the inclusion of twelve Amendments, or Twelve Articles, until September 25, 1789 (History of the Bill of Rights, 2012). While th e first two amendments were rejected, the first ten Amendments of the Constitution make of the United States Bill of Rights. The Bill of Rights was formally ratified on December 15, 1791 (Independence Hall Association, 2012). The First Amendment protects an individuals freedom of speech and assembly and states, CongressRead MoreThe United States Constitution And The Criminal Justice System1231 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesto be smoother and make sure they are being treated fairly. I will cover the impact of the United States Constitution for the offender in the criminal justice system. This will include the fourth, fifth, sixth, eighth, and fourteenth amendments as well as due process for offenders. The fourth amendment is, Ã¢â¬Å"The portion of the Bill of Rights that generally requires warrants for searches and seizures but has been construed to permit warrantless arrests in most situations.Ã¢â¬ (Ingram, 2009, P.500) ThisRead MoreBill of Rights Essay1647 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Brant gives a summary of how these amendments proposed by James Madison, would be added quickly to the Constitution: The first ten amendments were added to the Constitution of the United States in a period of uneasy calm. The Americans who were most apprehensive over that untried document, because its guarantees of liberty did not go far enough, included a great many who wanted to cut down its grants of legislative and executive power. But the amendments were drafted and submitted to the nationRead More The patriot act Essay710 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesthis is an attack on the first amendment, which is freedom of religion, speech, assembly and freedom of the press. The bill has also expanded the powers of law enforcement agencies(police, FBI, CIA, NSA). Law enforcement agents now have the ability to conduct secret searches, place telephone and internet surveillance, and can access personal medical, financial, and student records with minimal judicial oversight. Many feel that this is an attack on the fourth amendment which is freedom from unreasonableRead MoreThe Death Penalty : Is It Constitutional Or Moral? Essay1559 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGreat Britain. Therefore, the framers of the constitution Dyess 2 created rights to protect Americans from wrongful death, improper trails, and unusual punishments. The death penalty is a violation of an AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s 5th, 8th, and 14th amendments. The Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution states, No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militiaRead MoreThe Constitution Of The United States1552 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescountry for over 200 years. The Bill of Rights, also known has the first Ten Amendments of the Constitution, has protected the unalienable rights of citizens in the United State. Selective incorporation was used in order to nationalize the Bill of Rights and protect the immunities, rights, and privileges of all United States citizens within the states. The success of Selective Incorporation, along with the 14th Amendment, ensured that states could not put in place any laws that took away the constitutionalRead MoreThe Importance Of Government Transparency And Accountability1628 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesis important to note the importance of government transparency and accountability throughout this paper. Under the fourth amendment there are three provisions that needs to be discussed. Two of these provisions: No improper searches and seizures, and Evidence obtained by illegal search not admissible during trial. In 1990, the Supreme Court summarized the Fourth Amendment brilliantly and succinctly: Ã¢â¬Å" A search compromises the individual interest in privacy; a seizure deprives the individual of
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
MichelangeloÃ¢â¬â¢s work in the Sistine Chapel is one of the greatest pieces of fresco work in the Italian Renaissance. Every year millions of people travel to the Vatican to see this impressive work . Not only is the Sistine Chapel an attraction for art lovers, but for Christians the Sistine Chapel is considered one of the holiest chapels in our world today . However, the Sistine Chapel like any other works of art was designed to send a message to its viewers. Like most art commissioned by the Catholic Church, the Sistine Chapel was intended to elevate the standing of the church and to inspire church goers in their faith. However, the creation of the Sistine Chapel frescos is not as simplistic as those who commissioned Michelangelo toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Although his actions were not beneficial to everyone, Pope Sixtus spent a vast amount of money rebuilding the Vatican. He rebuilt bridges, streets, churches, and he founded the Vatican library. One of his projects inclu ded the expansion of the Palatine Chapel which would be later referred to as the Sistine Chapel. Pope Sixtus commissioned Florentine architect Bartelomeo Ã¢â¬Å"BaccioÃ¢â¬ Pontelli to rebuild the chapel. Pontelli was known for his ability to reconstruct and fortify building structures, which was pivotal to rebuilding of the dilapidated Palatine Chapel. The building plans for the chapel required it to be built on a larger scale than most chapels during that time period, and to have fortress on the top-level of the chapel to serve as security for the Vatican. The actual layout of the chapel was a copy of the Jewish Holy Temple. It is still a mystery how that occurred, but many researchers speculate that Pope Sixtus requested that the temple build a church similar to the Jewish Holy Temple. The reasoning behind the layout of the temple has to do with a religious doctrine known as successionism, which is the belief that one religion can take the place of another. Researchers belie ve that Pope SixtusÃ¢â¬â¢ designed the temple to illustrate to the world that the Catholic Church was the true church and that Judaism was not. Having a new Holy Temple meant that Rome was now the New Jerusalem, and the capital of the Christian world. Pope Sixtus arrangedShow MoreRelatedThe Paintings On The Ceiling Of The Sistine Chapel1930 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesthe motion of the human figure and the anatomy of muscles in a way that was increasingly beautiful and startlingly realistic. Whether because of one of the most famous sculptures in history, Ã¢â¬Å"the DavidÃ¢â¬ or the paintings on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, that became the textbook examples for the art period of High Renaissance, MichelangoÃ¢â¬â¢s art changed the world and he will continue to be studied with awe throughout history. MichelangeloÃ¢â¬â¢s era, the Renaissance was not a time of great social orRead More Sistine Chapel Essay examples1339 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescontemporary artists. Michelangelo grew up and was first exposed to stone carving, Ã¢â¬Å"he regarded himself first and foremost as a sculptor.Ã¢â¬ (FIERO) Michelangelo was commissioned by Pope Julius II Della Rovere in 1508 to repaint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel frescoed earlier by Piero Matteo dAmelia with a star-spangled sky. Buonarroti, who had always regarded himself as a sculptor, would now have to perfect the art of fresco. Michelangelos lament that quot;painting is not my artquot; proved aRead MoreThe Controversial Restoration of the Sistine Chapel849 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages The restoration of the Sistine Chapel in the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s and 90Ã¢â¬â¢s was very controversial. This issue began because Michelangelo, the painter of the Sistine Chapels ceiling, did the painting as a fresco. This means that the paint was absorbed in the wall, thus becoming part of the wall itself. Like many other walls and building, over time they began to crack and deteriorate. During the time of the consideration of the restoration of the chapel, the fresco had been up for over 500 years. As one would expectRead MoreThe Sistine Chapel and the Creation of Adam900 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The Sistine Chapel and the Creation of Adam Michelangelo(1475-1564) The sistine Chapel and mainly the Creation of Adam fresco are treasures to the world of art, Michelangelo the creator brought his discipline of sculpting into painting the frescoes and the human silhouette. The story of the Sistine Chapel starts with the building itself, built in 1473 under the supervision of Giovannino de Dolci. It is located in Vatican, Which is almost like the capital for catholicism. VaticanRead MoreSistine Chapel Ceiling and The Last Judgment2035 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesIn this research paper I will be looking at two different artworks by the same artist. The two I will be looking at are the Sistine Chapel Ceiling (1508-1512) and The Last Judgment (1534). Both of these painting are painted in the Sistine chapel which is located in the Vatican. I am going to attempt to evaluate these two pieces of art painted by Michelangelo and explain the cultural and religious aspects of them. I will also look to other scholars to get their perspective and their reactions toRead More Michelangelo and The Sistine Chapel Frescos Essay1441 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages On the 10th of May 1508 I signed a contract to agree to fulfill Pope JuliusÃ¢â¬â¢commission on painting the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. I had bad feelings about thewhole thing from the day Julius commissioned me to paint instead of sculpt. I am anarchitect and sculptor not a fresco painter. It is not that I doubt my abilityÃ¢â¬â¢s to completesuch a task, but I believe that there are other artists that would be much better suited for the job than I. It is of course an honor to be chosen to paint such aRead MoreThe Renaissance Painter, Artist, And Poet Michelangelo s The Ceiling Of The Sistine Chapel 1382 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesJames Loggins Humanities 2210 Unit 2 Research Essay 24 October 2016 The Renaissance painter, sculptor, and poet Michelangelo is famous not only for his painting of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel or his sculpture of the Biblical King David, but he also created another Biblical figure, the Hebrew Prophet Moses. The sculpture was commissioned by Pope Julius II, in an attempt to mirror his Ã¢â¬Å"larger than lifeÃ¢â¬ reputation and personality. MichelangeloÃ¢â¬â¢ Moses along with other pieces of sculptureRead MoreThe Sistine Chapel : An Extension Of A Primary Religious Place Of Fellowship2129 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesThe Sistine Chapel The Sistine Chapel is a large chapel, which is a religious place of fellowship, prayer and worship that is attached to a larger, often nonreligious institution or that is considered an extension of a primary religious institution. The Chapel is located in Vatican City, Rome and is in the Apostolic Palace. It is known for its Renaissance art, especially for the ceiling art that was painted by Michelangelo, and attracts more than 5 million visitors each year (Szalay, 2013). TheRead MoreThe Geniuses Artist Michelangelo Essay816 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMichelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni better known as Michelangelo is one of the greatest artistic geniuses of the Italian Renaissance or that every lived for that matter, some of his works include his sculpture of David, ceiling paintings of the Sistine chapel, and also the Pieta. Michelangelo was born in Caprese, Italy in 1475 to Leonardo di Buonarrota Simoni and Francesca Neri. During the time of his birth MichelangeloÃ¢â¬â¢s fat her was a magistrate in the town of Caprese but moved his family to FlorenceRead More Biography Of Michelangelo Essay1685 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswait on the tomb, so that Michelangelo could paint the Sistine Chapel. He would then finish the tomb in 1515, after completing the Sistine Chapel. Some of his finest sculptings came from the tomb, including the Ã¢â¬Å"MosesÃ¢â¬ , the Ã¢â¬Å"Bound SlaveÃ¢â¬ and the Ã¢â¬Å"Dying SlaveÃ¢â¬ , even though he redesigned it on a more modest scale. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;In April of 1508 Michelangelo was summoned back to Rome by Pope Julius II to paint the Sistine Chapel. Michelangelo at first declined the invitation but eventually
Tuesday, December 10, 2019
The Immigration Debate Essay, Research Paper The effects that in-migration has on the United States are illimitable. There have been eternal arguments over these effects since every bit early as the colonial times. The economic, financial and demographic effects are three major subjects that tend to govern these arguments. Based on both positive and negative effects in-migration has on the economical, financial, and demographic sides of the United States, one can reason that in-migration is good, but should be limited. The consequence of in-migration on the economic system is a major subject discussed among much of the state. It is said to hold both positive and negative effects that cancel each other out. Many agree that in-migration brings a addition to the economic system. James Smith gives an account of how the immigrants increase the economic system, yet still may hold negative effects for some people: At the most basic degree, immigrants increase the supply of labour and assist bring forth new goods and services. But since they are paid less than the entire value of these new goods and services, domestic workers as a group must derive. On the production side, in-migration allows domestic workers to be used more fruitfully, specialising in bring forthing goods at which they are comparatively more efficient. Specialization in ingestion besides yields addition. Even when the economic system as a whole additions, nevertheless, there may be also-rans every bit good as gainers among different groups of United States occupants. ( 4 ) Some argue that while immigrants help the growing of the United States economic system, the consequence is really little. Harmonizing to David Lagesse, a recent survey says immigrants lend every bit much as $ 10 billion in economic growing each twelvemonth, mostly because they help maintain monetary values lower. But the consequence is little on a United States economic system that produces about $ 8 trillion ( 1 ) . It has besides been argued that the poorness rate of the United States has been negatively effected by in-migration. Peter Brimelow agrees, stating, because many immigrants are comparatively unskilled, their poorness rate is significantly higher at 18 per centum, compared to the 12.1 per centum poorness rate for the native-born ( 11 ) . Immigrant workers besides play a function in the economic system. There has been a argument within the last few old ages affecting the computing machine industry and immigrants. Many companies feel that there are non plenty skilled people in the United States to make full the demand for computing machine coders. They besides argue that these companies do non give Americans the opportunity to work in these places, and are unwilling to retrain older coders. They want lone people trained with the latest computing machine accomplishments, and expression to aliens to make full these demands. Roy Beck explains that industry functionaries counter that American coders frequently don Ts have the particular accomplishment needed for a new undertaking and that companies like to be able to reconnoiter the whole universe for person who can step right in and make the occupation ( 141 ) . Beck besides argues that for other concerns, the penchant for foreign workers is no accident ; they are looking for people who will work for less money and put up with worse working conditions ( 142 ) . Merely in countries with high concentrations of low-skilled, low-paid immigrants are province and local taxpayers paying more on norm to back up the publically funded services that these immigrants use ( Lagesse ) . While the in-migration of workers does hold its downside, it chiefly has a positive consequence: The benefits of in-migration nevertheless are multiplex. Immigrants are extremely entrepreneurial. Their rate of concern start-ups and self employment tend to be higher than that of United States born citizens. Immigrants contribute to the planetary fight of US corporations, peculiarly in high engineering industries. Possibly the most of import benefit is that immigrants come to the United States with critically needed endowments, energies that serve as an engine for economic advancement ( Kposowa 78 ) . The benefits and ruins of the in-migration workers both play a large portion in today s argument over in-migration. It is clear that each side of the argument has both good and bad points. A 2nd facet of in-migration that has been debated is the financial consequence of in-migration on the United States. The financial effects of in-migration vary widely, doing it to be another no-win argument. Harmonizing to Smith, the difference between revenue enhancements from families of immigrants, and the cost of authorities services for that family aid mensurate the financial consequences of in-migration ( 8 ) . The financial impact is different at each degree. Normally, the financial impact is positive at the federal degree, and negative at the province degree. Because the negative province impacts are concentrated in the few provinces that receive the bulk of immigrants, some provinces experience financial loads from immigrants ( Smith 12 ) . The age of the kids of immigrants plays a function in the financial impacts of immigrant families. Households headed by immigrants include the native-born school-age kids of immigrants, who incur high costs of public instruction, but do n on include the native-born kids of immigrants, who have a positive financial impact. For this ground, current financial impacts estimated for immigrant-headed families are biased towards negative Numberss ( Smith 352 ) . The long-run financial parts that immigrants make, nevertheless, will change depending on such factors as instruction and age of reaching to the United States. Immigrants with higher degrees of instruction will pay more revenue enhancements in the long term because they have higher incomes. But immigrants who don # 8217 ; Ts have high school instructions and those who are age 50 or older on reaching may have more benefits than they pay in revenue enhancements ( Lagesse ) . The financial impacts of in-migration are evidently really dependent on several different factors, and hard to sort as either good or bad. The Demographics of the United States is a 3rd point normally discussed in the argument over in-migration. With the continuance of in-migration to the United States comes higher populations and changing of the per centum of different races within each metropolis. This major alteration has caused major contention within these metropoliss. Immigrants are get downing to settle in more and more provinces than earlier, and taking some towns by surprise. Some greet them with unfastened weaponries, and welcome a new civilization into their country. Others feel invaded and fight the sudden addition in population and race differences within their country. The sudden alteration in population within these metropoliss has formed a demand for bilingual instructors, police officers, and general military mans ( Bustos 1 ) . While some see this as a menace, it can besides be viewed as a positive measure towards conveying down the boundaries between civilization, race, and states. One can see that limited in-migration is good based on the good and bad consequences in-migration has on the economical, financial, and demographic places of the United States. The positive and negative effects that in-migration in general and workers have on the economic system cancel each other out. Many factors influence the United States financial state of affairs, including age, doing the federal financial degree to by and large be positive, while the province degree is usually negative. The fact that so many factors influence the financial state of affairs proves that one can neer find whether in-migration has a good or bad consequence on the United States. The addition in population caused by in-migration is besides doing both good and bad jobs in the United States, doing some people to experience threatened, while others feel a sense of togetherness. Without in-migration the United States would non be what it is today. Almost everything in life has both good and bad qualities , but with a small ordinance and control they can turn out to be positive. Immigration is one of those cases in life where with a small ordinance in-migration can be a great push towards a better hereafter. 334
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Middle East is a term that has been used to refer to a region that covers South Western Asia although currently it includes some countries like Pakistan, North Africa and Caucasus (Brown, 2004). It is important to note that the term is also used to mean Near East and to exclude the region known as Far East.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on What is Middle East? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is a major center for various affairs in the whole world contributing greatly to its popularity. For instance, it is the center for some of the major religions in the world like Islam, Judaism, BahaÃ¢â¬â¢i faith and Christianity. Farming is a major economic activity and although some parts are arid, there are some rivers that are used for irrigation and thus why agriculture is practiced even in such areas. In addition, some regions especially in the Gulf area are rich sources of crude oil and contribute greatly to the ec onomy seeing that oil is an important source of energy in the whole world. There is much about Middle East in relation to political, economic, geographical and cultural perspective. Bent on that, this essay shall focus more on its history as well as the relevance of the term Middle East. According to Davis (2003), Middle East originated from British office in India, in the mid 19th century. Further studies indicate that the popularity of the term increased in the 20th century. It was used to refer to the area between India and Arabia by Alfred Thayer, a naval strategist from America. Further studies illustrate that he used the term for the first time at the beginning of the 20th century in an article he authored known as Persian Gulf and the International Relations. The article set pace for other articles which were published latter mainly focusing on the definition of the same concept. Before the Second World War, the term Middle East was used to refer of the region between the Far East and the Near East. Nonetheless, history records that after Middle East Institute was Established during the mid 20th century in Washington DC, the term became popular not only in Europe, but also in the United States. Although currently the term Middle East has become increasingly popular, there is much criticism that has resulted from the usage of the term. For instance, the fact that the term is of European origin and is used not only by Europeans but also by non Europeans both in academic and media sector raises much criticism. In addition, the description of Middle East is also as mater of concern especially due to the fact that the definition has been prone to so much change. For example, before the First World War, Middle East was used to refer to the region of Central Asia, Iran and Afghanistan while the Near East used to refer to Ottoman Empire and Balkans and lastly, Far East included all countries which were found in East Asia.Advertising Looking for essay on as ian? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a result, some advocate that instead of Middle East, it would be far much better to refer to the region as Western Asia as it is referred to by the United Nations. Moreover, different countries refer to Middle East differently. United States unlike Europe includes countries such as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait Jordan, Egypt, Israel Jordan, Iraq, Qatar and Bahrain (Brown, 2004). It has been difficult to translate Middle East or Near East in other languages apart from European languages due to the fact that the term is a descriptive term. Therefore, terms used to refer to the region in other countries are different although there are similar terms that can be used in English. The term used to refer to the region is highly dependent on the particular country since all the countries have got different languages and different translations. Having discussed the background information concerning Middle East , it is important at this point to discuss some of the historical events related to the same concept. Apart from being a center for major faiths in the whole world, Middle East is a center for major civilizations that have taken place as highlighted earlier in this essay. The first civilization occurred in Mesopotamia, Egypt and along the Nile valley regions. Other civilizations that closely followed include the civilizations of Arabian Peninsula, Levant and Persia. In addition, many empires developed latter which are inclusive but not limited to Romans Empire, Egyptians Empire, Assyrians Empire, Greeks and the Persians Empire. Although as indicated earlier there are many forms of civilization, the Roman Empires is the most notable because it incorporated Eastern Mediterranean and also united parts of Europe and North Africa into one political and economic unit. It was an Empire which was powerful for centuries and went to an extent of influencing other areas that are near the regio n. The empire was characterized by the Greek culture and language which was first introduced by the Macedonian Empire in spite of the fact that Latin culture was also present. The main economic activity in the region was agriculture which made the empire very powerful and it also led to development of major cities and urban centers. Roman Empire particularly became the center for the Christian faith since history clearly illustrates that from the fifth century, Christianity was the dominant religion in the region. However, although the empire split, it was characterized by much prosperity and stability for a long duration of time (Davis, 2003). Islam in Middle East began to take over in the seventh century especially after the Roman and the Persian Empire became weak due to the effects of the Roman and Persian Wars. Arab armies contributed greatly to the victory of Muslims especially due to the fact that the army commanders were skilled and as much as the Roman Empire was powerful, it was not possible to put in enough resistance to prevent the conquest of the Muslims.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on What is Middle East? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Consequently, the Islam Empire was the first to gain control over Middle East and more than half of the Mediterranean Sea region save the Roman Empire. The civilization is very significant in the history of the Middle East because it unified the region in to a distinctive region with a peculiar ethnic identity that is present even to date (Davis, 2003). The region was separated into various regions which included Israel in the mid 20th century. Some of the European powers like Britain and France also left and the same contributed greatly to the establishment of the modern Middle East. Oil production by countries like United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Iraq, Iran and Saudi Arabia became the defining factor economically due to mass production of oi l not to mention that some countries like Saudi Arabia became very important producers of oil in the whole world. As a result, the region became the main cause of conflict between Soviet Union and the United States during the cold war. There may have been other causes of conflicts between the two superpowers but the fact that the region produced large quantities of oil contributed greatly to same since gaining control was accompanied by economic benefits. Middle East has been characterized by periods of peace as well as by periods of wars and conflict (Chaurasia, 2005). For instance, there is a major conflict between Israel and Palestine. In addition, the current occupation of Iraq by United States needs no further explanation. Apart from conflicts, Middle East has also been characterized by lack of development. During 1990s, it was only a few counties in the region which include Palestine, Turkey and Lebanon that were democratic while a lot of regions in the whole world were charac terized by democracy and development of market economies. In addition, although many states in the region had legislative bodies, it was not possible for most people in the population to vote due to lack of citizenship. Factors like increased dependence on oil, corruption, spending too much money on arms as well as political restrictions were the major contributory factors that hindered the development of market economies. Depending too much on revenues from oil was also a major hindrance as well as high population since countries which had low populations like United Arab Emirates did not share the same problem. Such states were even politically and socially liberalized and that is why they were more developed (Chaurasia, 2005). There is no much difference between the 20th and the 21st century since major conflicts of the 20th century are also present like the conflict between Israel and Palestine. The region has also been linked with world terrorism especially towards United State s and its allies. Although United States believed that some countries in the region like Afghanistan were involved in production of weapons of mass destruction, oil may have been a major contributory factor to the conflict other than the manufacturing of alms.Advertising Looking for essay on asian? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More More conflicts are present in majority of the Middle East countries contributing greatly to poverty and other social problems that are closely associated with wars and conflicts. There is much about the history of Middle East bearing in mind that it is a large region with different countries. Therefore, very explicit details may be beyond the scope of this paper although the main historical issues and events have been covered (Shah, 2009). There are many ethnic groups that are found in the region of Middle East like Jews, Arabs, Greeks, Armenians, Turks, and d Assyrians, to state just a few. Islam is the major religion in the region although there are other forms of religion like Christianity, Judaism, Zoroastrianism as well as BahaÃ¢â¬â¢i. Three major languages that are spoken in the region include Turkish, Arabic and Persian and they make three groups of language families. Majority of people in the Middle East speak in Arabic which happens to be an official language in Arab coun tries. Persian language is second after Arabic and is spoken mainly in Iran which is among the highest populated countries in the region. The Persian language which hails from the family of Indo European languages is largely influenced by Arabic due to Islam religion and is also spoken by some boarder countries apart from Iran. Turkish language is number three in the category of the most spoken languages. It is spoken mostly in Turkey which happens to have the highest population in the whole region. The language which originated from Asia belongs to the Turkish languages group category. However, it is important to point out that there are some minor languages that are spoken by some of the groups in the population which include Hebrew, smaller Iranian languages, Greek and Kurdish to mention just a few. In some countries like Iran, Egypt and Israel, English is also spoken though mostly as a second language and mostly by the higher socio economic groups in the society. French is also spoken as a second language in countries like Lebanon and Tunisia as well as Morocco. Lastly, Roman is spoken by a quite a large portion of population in the Middle East especially in Israel (Davis, 2003). Although statistics illustrate that the economies of all countries in Middle East are maintaining a steady growth rate, some countries in the region are poor while others are extremely rich. Iran, Turkey and Saudi Arabia have the largest economies in the whole of Middle East. Some countries like Saudi Arabia and Kuwait are highly dependent on oil and oil products while others like Israel and Egypt as well as Turkey have a diversified economy. Apart from oil and oil products, there are other industries in the agricultural sector and others are involved in manufacturing war equipments like missiles, fighter jets, sub marines and tanks. In some countries like Bahrain, banking is an important component of economy though there are still other economic activities. Some industries like t he tourism are not well developed in the region especially due to the conflicts that have been persistent in most countries expect for some few countries like Israel, Lebanon and Turkey. Nevertheless, some countries are committed to improving tourist attraction facilities and as a result, the industry is beginning to peak in such areas. As in other places in the world, unemployment is major problem in the region and mainly affects young people contributing greatly to poverty (Issawi, 1995). At this point, it is important to discuss the development of the concept Middle East since it was first invented by the US Naval Strategist as highlighted earlier. To begin with, the term was used to define the region between Arabia and India or the Persian Gulf. Initially, there were no boundaries to designate the area labeled as Middle East as the term was only used to illustrate the importance of the region. The term was used for the security purposes of the region but after the First World Wa , the importance changed from security to include the resources that were found in the region like oil. This happened after Palestine, Iraq, Lebanon, Syria and Tran Jordan were conquered by the France and included in the region. The entire Asia and some regions of North Africa were referred to as Middle East by the Great Britain during the mid 20th century. Since United States was also interested in the region, it started using the definition of the Great Britain. At this point, the person who formed the region was not an important factor but the main concern was the rich resources of oil. Therefore, Middle East was significant to other people other than the dwellers of the region. The main reason why Britain and United States were concerned with the security of the region was basically for the sole purpose of preventing any external power from gaining access in to the region since that would have threatened their economic interests (UNU/CRIS and Allied Consultants , 2002). In the 1 9th century, people who lived in the Middle East started to scrutinize the concept of the same. Arab regional order was used to replace the term Middle East since Arab nationalists argued that the term was supposed to include all the Arab speaking countries. Nevertheless, although the concept was advantageous since the interests of the people were put in to consideration, it was disadvantageous because some of the non Arabic countries like Israel which had contributed so much to the welfare of the region were excluded from the region. On the same note, it is important to mention as highlighted earlier that Mediterranean concept has also been proposed instead of the Middle East concept. However, although Mediterranean concept is becoming increasingly popular, it is mostly used to refer to the cooperation that exists between the Arab states and the European countries which ranges from multilateral to bilateral agreements and the major issues of concern are security, Arab and Israel pe ace progress, energy and stability of the region. Unlike the Middle East concept, Mediterranean concept is not contested and does not cause any hostility in the Arab countries. However, the concept is not supported by the majority (Shah, 2009). In conclusion, Middle East can be described as a historical and a geographical region although there is no clear definition of the same. Initially, the region covered regions of North Africa as well as the regions of South west Asia. As much as the concept Middle East is popular, history records that United Nations does not use the term officially and instead the region is referred to as South West Asia. The region which is characterized by many ethnic groups and languages was a center for major civilizations that have taken place in the world. The meaning of the concept has been prone to so much change since some countries have been included while others have been excluded from time to time. The main cause of criticism is due to the fact tha t it was defined using a European perspective. Nonetheless, the term is used by Europeans and non-Europeans and other countries translate it in their languages to either mean Middle East or Near East (Middle East, 2008). Reference List Brown, L. C. 2004. Diplomacy in the Middle East: the international relations of regional and outside powers. London: I.B.Tauris. Chaurasia, R. 2005. History of Middle East. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers Distributors . Davis, C. S. 2003. The Middle East for dummies. Hoboken: Wiley . Issawi, C. P. 1995. The Middle East economy: decline and recovery : selected essays. Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers. Middle East. 2008. Retrieved from http://www.solarnavigator.net/geography/mddle_east.htm Shah, A. 2009. Middle East. Retrieved from http://www.globalissues.org/issue/103/middle-east UNU/CRIS and Allied Consultants. 2002. The Middle East. Web. This essay on What is Middle East? was written and submitted by user Fernanda R. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.